Climate: Because of the elevation and distance from oceans, Mongolia has a continental climate. The country is located between Siberia's taiga forested mountains and Central Asian deserts/Kara kum, Takla Makan/ as result, the climate is an interim between these: extreme climate with cold winters, windy springs, long autumns and short summers. It's a land with 264 sunny and cloudles days a year. Of course, it's more hot in summer and less cold in its southern regions. But it's never as hot as in Central Asian countries such as or , for example. The dry athmosphere of winter makes even the coldest temperatures tolerable!!! That's why is known to the world as the country of Blue Sky. By the way, tourists often say the sky is very, very blue over here. Precipitation is highest in the north/for example, it's often rainy and foggy around Hovsgol Lake /which averages 20 to 35 centimeters per year, and lowest in the south, which receives 10 to 20 centimeters. The coldest temperature  in summer is observed, for example, around Hatgal village located in southern bank of Hovsgol Lake.

More than half of the land is covered by permafrost. The extreme south is the Gobi , some regions of which receive no precipitation at all in most years. The name Gobi is a Mongol meaning desert, depression, salt marsh, or steppe, but which usually refers to a category of arid rangeland with insufficient, but nutritous vegetation to support local animals. When summer is relatively rainy, Gobi is like a grassland and it's like a real desert if there is no rains there. There were not many animal losses in Gobi provinces during those “zudâ€Â-s of the late 90-s, while some central and northern regions suffered severely at the same time. Mongols distinguish Gobi from desert proper, although the distinction is not always apparent to outsiders unfamiliar with the Mongolian landscape. Gobi rangelands are fragile and are easily destroyed by overgrazing/for cashmere, nomads start raising too many goats that eat grasses as well as  their roots/, which results in expansion of the true desert, although Mongolian  semidesert surface is normally reinforced by its vegetation. Average temperatures over most of the country are below freezing from November through March and are about freezing in April and October. January and February averages of -20C are common, with winter nights of -40 C occurring most years. Summer extremes reach as high as 38C in the southern Gobi region and 33C in Ulaanbaatar . More than half the country is covered by permafrost, which makes construction, road building, and mining difficult. All rivers and freshwater lakes freeze over in the winter, and smaller streams commonly freeze to the bottom. Ulaanbaatar lies at 1,351 meters above sea level in the valley of the Tuul Gol, a river. Located in the relatively well-watered north, it receives an annual average of 31 centimeters of precipitation, almost all of which falls in July and in August. Ulaanbaatar has an average annual temperature of -29Cand a frost-free period extending on the average from mid-June to late August. Mongolia's weather is characterized by extreme variability and short-term unpredictability in the summer, and the multiyear averages conceal wide variations in precipitation, dates of frosts, and occurrences of blizzards and spring dust storms. Such weather poses severe challenges to human and livestock survival. Official statistics list less than 1 percent of the country as arable, 8 to 10 percent as forest, and the rest as pasture or desert. Grain, mostly wheat, is mostly grown in the valleys of the Selenge river system in the north, but yields fluctuate widely and unpredictably as a result of the amount and the timing of rain and the dates of killing frosts. Although winters are generally cold and clear, there are occasional blizzards that do not deposit much snow but cover often the grasses with enough snow and ice to make grazing difficult, even impossible killing weak animals of nomads. Most  livestock losses occur in  springs mostly because of freezing winds. The environment is incredibly varied. The south of the country is the arid Gobi desert, hot and dry in the summer, cold and dry in the winter. Deserts and Sand desert steppes  found in southern, south-western and western parts of the country.  It has a continental climate, with long, cold winters and brief, mild, and relatively wet summers. When Arctic air masses dominate in mid-winter, temperatures average -20Cto -35C  in the Ider River and Uvs Lake basin in northwestern , known as one of the coldest places in all of Asia , the lowest temperature ever recorded is -58C. By contrast, summer time temperatures in the Gobi desert climb as high as 40C. Annual precipitation ranges from 24 inches (600 mm.) in the Khentii, Altai, and Khuvsgul Mountains to less than 4 inches (100 mm.) in the Gobi. In some parts of the Gobi , no precipitation may fall for several years in a row. Mongolia has 4 seasons:winter, spring, summer and autumn.

Winter Mongolia: In  Mongolia, winter is the coldest season. The weather is permanantly cold. But having dry athmosphere, even cold temperatures are tolerable here. Winter lasts longer in northern section of the country. All rivers, lakes, streams and ponds freeze in winter. It snows throughout the country, but not as heavily as it does for example, in Siberia . After making all the necessary preparations for a long winter, some herdsmen stay at their winter camps while other nomads keep moving in search of better places to comfort their animals. Winter starts early in November in northern section of the country and lasts about 110 days until March. Winter is sunny. Winds are weak and local. There is  normally a difference of 8-15C in temperature between  northern and southern regions of the country. Sometimes it snows in September and November on mountainous areas, but the heavy snow usually occurs at the beginning of November. In northern and eastern , where grasses are in abundancy, people stock hays to feed animals during winter. January is the coldest winter month in and the mean temperature is -35C at night in Khangai mountain regions, -15C in Gobi and -20Cand -25C in the other parts of the country. However, -10C in Europe means -20C

Spring in Mongolia: Spring is very important season for nomadic Mongol people:days become longer, and nights shorter after Decemver 22nd. Spring is windy in Mongolia. It is the time for snow to melt and for animals to come out from hibernation. Spring starts in March, although temperatures start rising after around February 15th. All animals and livestock breed while the soil thaws in the warm spring weather. It means some animals, which hibernated, awoke from their long sleep.  All animals are the most weak after spending their fatness during cold winter. Spring is both: the hard/most animal deaths occur in the spring because of wet snow , freezing winds, cold nights/and prosperous season: grasses start growing up in April and turn green in May. Beginning from March spring usually lasts about 60 days although it can be as long as 70 days or as short as 45 days in some areas of the country. For people and livestock, it is a very harsh season of the driest and the most windy days although it gets gradually warm in spring, livestock breed and gain their weight; and grass becomes green at last.

Summer in Mongolia: Summer is the warmest season in . Sometimes it’s too hot in July and August in Gobi areas of Omnogovi, Bayankhongor, Gobi-Altay aymags, for example.Generally, precipitation is higher in summer than any time of the year. But sunny days are  always more numerous than cloudy days in this country. Rivers and streams are at their fullest in summer. It is the time when pasture, grass and crops grow and livestock gain weight and fat. It is the most pleasant time with abundant dairy products and there are many feasts and holidays of happy people. In , summer lasts about 110 days from the end of May until September. July is the warmest month of summer and the temperature is around 20C in mountainous areas of Khangai region, 25C in the steppes. The highest temperature is between 35C in Khangai Mountains and 41C in Gobi.

Autumn in Mongolia: Autumn in is the season of transition from the hot and wet summer to the cold and dry winter. The rainfall stops normally by the beginning of September. Although, it's warm and nice at day time, gradually it gets cooler at nights and vegetables and grains are harvested at this time. Pasture and forests become yellow. But, it's still warm daytime till late October. We, Mongols call this time as "yellow days of autumn. Although, it snows sometimes in September in northern regions, for example around Huvsgul Lake .  Mosquitos and flies die.  Livestock is fat and woolly in preparation for the winter. Autumn is an important season in Mongolia in order to prepare for winter; harvesting the crops, vegetables and fodder; getting ready their cattle barns and sheds; preparing firewood and warming up their homes and so on. Autumn lasts about 60 days from the beginning of September until the early November.