The yaks called "sarlag" by the Mongols grazing in east of Ulaanbaatar. These yaks are "immigrant" animals in the central Mongolia's Hentii mountains. Although Hentii mountains geographically belong to eastern Mongolia, it's naively and politically regarded as central Mongolia's mountains. There were not yaks here till 40-50 years ago. When herders from western Mongolia settled in the Hentii mountains, some of them brought their yaks with them. They normally have a problem in adaptation in the new land. Local volves also have a problem in catching these fury animals with thick skin.

The overwelming majority of the Mongolia's 500 000 yaks inhabits 350-400 km west and north-west of Ulaanbaatar. Photo by Bolod.

drying meat

A nomadic way drying meat in ger\tent\ that's been practiced since time immemorial by the Mongols and by other Central Asians-the Kyrgyzs who are Kyrgyzs and Kazakhs since 1923, the Turks who are the Sakha-Yakuts in Siberia and the Uigurs who are now called the Tuvans. The Mongols call dryed meat-"borts".

Rs: Don't be confused ancient Turks and Uigurs with Turks\Ottomans\ from Turkey and Uigurs from Xingiang in China. Photo by Bolod.

ousted from market

"-We, the Mongolia's camels all want to work as all our ancestors did. But no demand for us. First, from 1950-s, the Soviet trucks started grabbing our market, then from 2000-s from Chinese, Japanese and Korean trucks completely ousted us from market. Today, in 2016, we-the camels are 367 000 in Mongolia. Unemployment is too high among us. A few of us rarely find jobs for a few hours.,

We always work for free. We don't need petrol or gas.  We don't even need saddle or cart. As you know, our wool is scarse briefly, April and August. Shame the Mongols who does not care of our employment !!! You spend all your time with horses. You-this generation of Mongols are so shame !".  

Translation and photo by Bolod.

mongol mori

In 1941-1945, the Mongols helped Soviet Army with everything they had including a half million horses to Soviet Army. Factories in Mongolia were working day and night in order to provide Soviet soldiers with uniforms, blankets, boots, winter coats and jackets, warm "valenki". Although the most Mongols lived fairly poor, every family warmheartly contributed to the soldiers in the frontline: horses, camels, lifestock, jewellery, food, fruits, sheepskin coats, leather belts, gloves, jackets, gifts...

The Russia-born Buryats who lived in Mongolia were labelled by Choibalsan, the country's dictator as "remnants of Tzar  Russians" and sent in 1934-1938 to Soviet GULAG camps. Those who survived the labor camps,  joined the Soviet Army and fought against the nazi Germans. The most of them died in the fronlines. A very few of them survived the war and returned home in Mongolia after the death  of Stalin in 1953.

waiting for mom

A little kid patiently waiting for her\his\ mom to finish milking all the cows with "babies". The kid knows that mother has to milk cows everyday. Every Mongol, including Temujin who later would become Chingis Khaan experienced the same "waiting" when he or she once was a child. Children also helps their mothers by guarding milk container that prevents other cows from drinking it. It' been like this for thousand years in Mongolia's land. Location Bulgan Province. Mongolia. Date: June 05, 2013. Photo by Bolod. 


Freedom in Mongolia. 

The eagle is free to fly wherever he wants to. Because he is not captured by eagle hunters.

The nomad family is free to move wherever they want to. Because pasture land is not privatised in Mongolia which is the 19th biggest country in the world by size of its land mass. Unfortunately, in some areas, foreign and Mongolian mining companies started dusturbing this centuries-long freedom. In 2015, Mr. Munkhbayar Tsetsegee, the 2007 Goldman Environmental Prize winner who was sentenced for 7 years jail term his struggles against dustructive mining opertations has been freed from prison after serving 2 years behind bars.

Photo by Bolod.


A Mongolian mother and her son are aiding a French tourist to pack one of horses that he and his friend bought in Bulgan Province for horseriding. The mother was sewing and the son was repairing. Today is May 22nd, 2013. Horses are still very weak after long winter and windy spring in Mongolia. 

As the Frenchmen got ready to start a long horseriding, I left them and returned Ulaanbaatar. Surprisingly, in about 10 days, the Frenchmen called me from somewhere in other countryside asking me to translate their bargaining with some nomads about a motorcycle... Photo taken by Bolod.

gazelles running through Eastern Mongolian steppes

Gazelles running through eastern Mongolian steppes.

Gazelles which totalled 4-5 mln in 1940-s, were instead 2 mln in 1997 and only 0.5 in Sukhbaatar, Dornod and Hentii provinces in 2009. Series of snow storms, butchering for needs of military units in 1970-1980s and massive hunting in 1990-2000s were the main causes in reduction of gazelle populace. Photo by Bolod.


Photo: a view from right outside the Parliament House in Ulaanbaatar.

Yes, there is a horrible monument in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. A monument to Stalin's \Jughashvili Joseph Vissarionovich\ bloody "brother" is standing comfortably today in front of the Mongolian State University in Ulaanbaatar. The Monument to Choibalsan Horloo\1895-1952\ who in 1934-1938 conducted bloody massacres of 30 000 mongols. The Mongolia's horrible monster did not even spare several pregnant women including Mrs. Dungarjid and Navchaa who were pledjing to save the lives of their would -born children. Only the Mongols are able to "explain" how this tyrany who tortured and killed their grandfathers is a good person. Photo by Bolod.


Senior nomads chatting while they wait for arrival of horses during Naadam Festival in Yusenzuil or "Nine Things" county, Uvurkhangai Aymag, Mongolia. They have a time. Horses with jockey-kids the first have to reach the starting line which is at 15-28km depending on ages and then start racing towards the finish line. Being spread throughout a large territory of their county, the most nomads don't meet too often, some meet hardly once a year- during Naadam festival in village. The Mongols say "to live in order to see Naadam of next year". They live nostalgically waiting for a next Naadam. Date taken: July 7th, 2015. Photo by Bolod.


-You, boy, be careful with the axe!!! I hope it's not so sharp.
Father and his little sons. The man is a champion of national wrestling of his Delgerkhaan county in Hentii Province. He got the title of Sumiin zaan or "County's Elephant" for his victory in Naadam festival's wrestling tournament of the native county. The herder trains horses too. Tomorrow, it's September 1st. School year starts in whole Mongolia! He and his wife are going to bring their older son who is now 6 to village school. Photo taken by me, Bolod.


 A page of 1908 Chinese edition of The Secret History of the Mongols" which was written in 1240 at Aurug, the first capital of Chingis Khaan's kingdom located in Hudo Aral steppe near Herlen River in eastern Mongolia. It's a page of the Chinese-character phonetic translations of the original Mongolian texts. The first to discover SHM for west and offer a translation from Chinese glossary was the Russian sinologist Pallady Kafarov\Pyotr Ivanovich Kafarov\ in 1866...

Content of the book:

-genealogy of Temujin's family-

-Temujin's early life with difficulties after the death of his father-Esukhei and plots against him.

-battles and wars against his enemies.

-Temujin becomes Chingis Khaan in 1206.

-Conquests by Chingis Khaan and his 3-rd son Ogodei throughout Europe and Asia.

-Ogodei's views.

hentii tal

Historically significant Hudo Aral Steppe streches from the shores of the eastern Mongolia's Herlen River which is the longest river in Mongolia.  The site of Aurug- the first capital of Mongols which was set up by Chingis Khaan is located in this steppe. "The Secret History of Mongols"-the most important Mongolian language chronology book of Mongolian history was completed written 1240 in this capital. Photo taken on August 04th, 2012 by Bolod.


A paysage in Darkhad Valley\Дархадын Хотгор\ of the north-western Huvsgul Aymag\province\ which is geographically a Siberia in Mongolia. It's 160km long 40km wide valley inhabited by Darkhad Mongols and some Tuvan people of Uigur ancestry. The Darkhads speak an Oirad dialect of Mongolian. Permafrost occupies almost two thirds of territory of Mongolia, predominantly in the Hentii, Huvsgul, Hangai and Altai mountain areas. For example, Bogd Uul Mountain near Ulaanbaatar is in deep permafrost. Photo taken on September 11th, 2013 by Bolod.

tsagaan nuur

It's Tsagaan Nuur or "White Lake" in the north-western Huvsgul Aymag\province\ of Mongolia. September 06th, 2013. The view is from Tsagaannuur Village inhabitad by the Mongols of Darkhad tribe and Uigurs\Tuvans\ whom we, in Mongolia call the Tsaatans or "people with reindeers". Photo taken by Bolod.